What are Muscle disorders?

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Movement disorders are a group of diseases and syndromes affecting the ability to produce and control movement. Though it seems simple and effortless, normal movement in fact requires an astonishingly complex system of control.

Disruption of any portion of this system can cause a person to produce movements that are too weak, too forceful, too uncoordinated, or too poorly controlled for the task at hand. Unwanted movements may occur at rest.

Intentional movement may become impossible. Such conditions are called movement disorders.

Signs & Symptoms of Muscle disorders

Abnormal movements are broadly classified as either hyperkinetic--too much movement--and hypokinetic--too little movement. Hyperkinetic movements include:

Dystonia. Sustained muscle contractions, often causing twisting or repetitive movements and abnormal postures. Dystonia may be limited to one area (focal) or may affect the whole body (general). Focal dystonias may affect the neck (cervical dystonia or torticollis), the face (one-sided or hemifacial spasm, contraction of the eyelid or blepharospasm, contraction of the mouth and jaw or oromandibular dystonia, simultaneous spasm of the chin and eyelid or Meige syndrome), the vocal cords (laryngeal dystonia), or the arms and legs (writer's cramp, occupational cramps). Dystonia may be painful as well as incapacitating.

Tremor. Uncontrollable (involuntary) shaking of a body part. Tremor may occur only when muscles are relaxed or it may occur only during an action or holding an active posture.

Tics. Involuntary, rapid, nonrhythmic movement or sound. Tics can be controlled briefly.

Myoclonus. A sudden, shock-like muscle contraction. Myoclonic jerks may occur singly or repetitively. Unlike tics, myoclonus cannot be controlled even briefly.

Chorea. Rapid, nonrhythmic, usually jerky movements, most often in the arms and legs.

Ballism. Like chorea, but the movements are much larger, more explosive and involve more of the arm or leg. This condition, also called ballismus, can occur on both sides of the body or on one side only (hemiballismus).

Akathisia. Restlessness and a desire to move to relieve uncomfortable sensations. Sensations may include a feeling of crawling, itching, stretching, or creeping, usually in the legs.

Athetosis. Slow, writhing, continuous, uncontrollable movement of the arms and legs.

Hypokinetic movements include:

Bradykinesia. Slowness of movement.
Freezing. Inability to begin a movement or involuntary stopping of a movement before it is completed.
Rigidity. An increase in muscle tension when an arm or leg is moved by an outside force.
Postural instability. Loss of ability to maintain upright posture caused by slow or absent righting reflexes.

Why Muscles Get Sore

As people age, they begin to complain more of pains in their muscles and joints. They seem to stiffen up with age, and such commonplace activities as bending over for the morning paper can make them wince.

Such pain can grip so fiercely that they are sure it begins deep in their bones. But the real cause of stiffness and soreness lies not in the joints or bones, according to research at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, but in the muscles and connective tissues that move the joints.

The frictional resistance generated by the two rubbing surfaces of bones in the joints is negligible, even in joints damaged by arthritis.

Flexibility is the medical term used to describe the range of a joint’s motion from full movement in one direction to full movement in the other. The greater the range of movement, the more flexible the joint.

If you bend forward at the hips and touch your toes with your fingertips, you have good flexibility, or range of motion of the hip joints. But can you bend over easily with a minimal expenditure of energy and force? The exertion required to flex a joint is just as important as its range of possible motion.

Different factors limit the flexibility and ease of movement in different joints and muscles. In the elbow and knee, the bony structure itself sets a definite limit. In other joints, such as the ankle, hip, and back, the soft tissue—muscle and connective tissue—limit the motion range.

The problem of inflexible joints and muscles is similar to the difficulty of opening and closing a gate because of a rarely used and rusty hinge that has become balky.

Hence, if people do not regularly move their muscles and joints through their full ranges of motion, they lose some of their potential. That is why when these people will try to move a joint after a long period of inactivity, they feel pain, and that discourages further use

What happens next is that the muscles become shortened with prolonged disuse and produces spasms and cramps that can be irritating and extremely painful. The immobilization of muscles, as researchers have demonstrated with laboratory animals, brings about biochemical changes in the tissue.

However, other factors trigger sore muscles. Here are some of them:


1. Too much exercise

Have you always believed on the saying, “No pain, no gain?” If you do, then, it is not so surprising if you have already experienced sore muscles.

The problem with most people is that they exercise too much thinking that it is the fastest and the surest way to lose weight. Until they ache, they tend to ignore their muscles and connective tissue, even though they are what quite literally holds the body together.

2. Aging and inactivity

Connective tissue binds muscle to bone by tendons, binds bone to bone by ligaments, and covers and unites muscles with sheaths called fasciae. With age, the tendons, ligaments, and fasciae become less extensible.

The tendons, with their densely packed fibers, are the most difficult to stretch. The easiest are the fasciae. But if they are not stretched to improve joint mobility, the fasciae shorten, placing undue pressure on the nerve pathways in the muscle fasciae. Many aches and pains are the result of nerve impulses traveling along these pressured pathways.

3. Immobility

Sore muscles or muscle pain can be excruciating, owing to the body’s reaction to a cramp or ache. In this reaction, called the splinting reflex, the body automatically immobilizes a sore muscle by making it contract. Thus, a sore muscle can set off a vicious cycle pain.

First, an unused muscle becomes sore from exercise or being held in an unusual position. The body then responds with the splinting reflex, shortening the connective tissue around the muscle. This cause more pain, and eventually the whole area is aching. One of the most common sites for this problem is the lower back.

4. Spasm theory

In the physiology laboratory at the University of Southern California, some people have set out to learn more about this cycle of pain.

Using some device, they measured electrical activity in the muscles. The researchers knew that normal, well-relaxed muscles produce no electrical activity, whereas, muscles that are not fully relaxed show considerable activity.

In one experiment, the researchers measured these electrical signals in the muscles of persons with athletic injuries, first with the muscle immobilized, and then, after the muscle had been stretched.

In almost every case, exercises that stretched or lengthened the muscle diminished electrical activity and relieved pain, either totally or partially.

These experiments led to the “spasm theory,” an explanation of the development and persistence of muscle pain in the absence of any obvious cause, such as traumatic injury.

According to this theory, a muscle that is overworked or used in a strange position becomes fatigued and as a result, sore muscles.

Hence, it is extremely important to know the limitations and capacity of the muscles in order to avoid sore muscles. This goes to show that there is no truth in the saying, “No pain, no gain.” What matters most is on how people stay fit by exercising regularly at a normal range than once rarely but on a rigid routine.

Types of Muscle disorders

Abnormal movements themselves are symptoms of underlying disorders. In some cases, the abnormal movements are the only symptoms. Disorders causing abnormal movements include:


• Parkinson's disease
• Parkinsonism caused by drugs or poisons
• Parkinson-plus syndromes (progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration)
• Huntington's disease
• Wilson's disease
• Inherited ataxias (Friedreich's ataxia, Machado-Joseph disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias)
• Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders
• Essential tremor
Restless Leg Syndrome
• Dystonia
• Stroke
• Cerebral palsy
• Encephalopathies
• Intoxication
• Poisoning by carbon monoxide, cyanide, methanol, or manganese.

What Causes Muscle disorders?

Movement is produced and coordinated by several interacting brain centers, including the motor cortex, the cerebellum, and a group of structures in the inner portions of the brain called the basal ganglia. Sensory information provides critical input on the current position and velocity of body parts, and spinal nerve cells (neurons) help prevent opposing muscle groups from contracting at the same time.

To understand how movement disorders occur, it is helpful to consider a normal voluntary movement, such as reaching to touch a nearby object with the right index finger. To accomplish the desired movement, the arm must be lifted and extended.

The hand must be held out to align with the forearm, and the forefinger must be extended while the other fingers remain flexed.


Voluntary motor commands begin in the motor cortex located on the outer, wrinkled surface of the brain. Movement of the right arm is begun by the left motor cortex, which generates a large volley of signals to the involved muscles. These electrical signals pass along upper motor neurons through the midbrain to the spinal cord.

Within the spinal cord, they connect to lower motor neurons, which convey the signals out of the spinal cord to the surface of the muscles involved. Electrical stimulation of the muscles causes contraction, and the force of contraction pulling on the skeleton causes movement of the arm, hand, and fingers.

Damage to or death of any of the neurons along this path causes weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.


This picture of movement is too simple, however. One important refinement to it comes from considering the role of opposing, or antagonistic, muscle pairs.

Contraction of the biceps muscle, located on the top of the upper arm, pulls on the forearm to flex the elbow and bend the arm. Contraction of the triceps, located on the opposite side, extends the elbow and straightens the arm.

Within the spine, these muscles are normally wired so that willed (voluntary) contraction of one is automatically accompanied by blocking of the other. In other words, the command to contract the biceps provokes another command within the spine to prevent contraction of the triceps.

In this way, these antagonist muscles are kept from resisting one another. Spinal cord or brain injury can damage this control system and cause involuntary simultaneous contraction and spasticity, an increase in resistance to movement during motion.


Once the movement of the arm is initiated, sensory information is needed to guide the finger to its precise destination. In addition to sight, the most important source of information comes from the "position sense" provided by the many sensory neurons located within the limbs (proprioception).

Proprioception is what allows you to touch your nose with your finger even with your eyes closed. The balance organs in the ears provide important information about posture. Both postural and proprioceptive information are processed by a structure at the rear of the brain called the cerebellum.

The cerebellum sends out electrical signals to modify movements as they progress, "sculpting" the barrage of voluntary commands into a tightly controlled, constantly evolving pattern. Cerebellar disorders cause inability to control the force, fine positioning, and speed of movements (ataxia).

Disorders of the cerebellum may also impair the ability to judge distance so that a person under- or over-reaches the target (dysmetria). Tremor during voluntary movements can also result from cerebellar damage.


Both the cerebellum and the motor cortex send information to a set of structures deep within the brain that help control involuntary components of movement (basal ganglia). The basal ganglia send output messages to the motor cortex, helping to initiate movements, regulate repetitive or patterned movements, and control muscle tone.

Circuits within the basal ganglia are complex. Within this structure, some groups of cells begin the action of other basal ganglia components and some groups of cells block the action. These complicated feedback circuits are not entirely understood. Disruptions of these circuits are known to cause several distinct movement disorders.

A portion of the basal ganglia called the substantia nigra sends electrical signals that block output from another structure called the subthalamic nucleus. The subthalamic nucleus sends signals to the globus pallidus, which in turn blocks the thalamic nuclei. Finally, the thalamic nuclei send signals to the motor cortex. The substantia nigra, then, begins movement and the globus pallidus blocks it.

This complicated circuit can be disrupted at several points. For instance, loss of substantia nigra cells, as in Parkinson's disease, increases blocking of the thalamic nuclei, preventing them from sending signals to the motor cortex. The result is a loss of movement (motor activity), a characteristic of Parkinson's.

In contrast, cell loss in early Huntington's disease decreases blocking of signals from the thalamic nuclei, causing more cortex stimulation and stronger but uncontrolled movements.

Disruptions in other portions of the basal ganglia are thought to cause tics, tremors, dystonia, and a variety of other movement disorders, although the exact mechanisms are not well understood.

Some movement disorders, including Huntington's disease and inherited ataxias, are caused by inherited genetic defects. Some disease that cause sustained muscle contraction limited to a particular muscle group (focal dystonia) are inherited, but others are caused by trauma. The cause of most cases of Parkinson's disease is unknown, although genes have been found for some familial forms.

Risk Factors:

Sprain refers to damage or tearing of ligaments or a joint capsule.
Strain refers to damage or tearing of a muscle.

When excessive force is applied to a joint, the ligaments that hold the bones together may be torn or damaged. This results in a sprain, and its seriousness depends on how badly the ligaments are torn. Any joint can be sprained, but the most frequently injured joints are the ankle, knee, and finger.

Strains are tears in the muscle. Sometimes called pulled muscles, they usually occur because of overexertion or improper lifting techniques. Sprains and strains are common. Anyone can have them.

Children under age eight are less likely to have sprains than are older people. Childrens' ligaments are tighter, and their bones are more apt to break before a ligament tears. People who are active in sports suffer more strains and sprains than less active people. Repeated sprains in the same joint make the joint less stable and more prone to future sprains.

Causes and symptoms

There are three grades of sprains. Grade I sprains are mild injuries where there is no tearing of the ligament, and no joint function is lost, although there may be tenderness and slight swelling.

Grade II sprains are caused by a partial tear in the ligament. These sprains are characterized by obvious swelling, extensive bruising, pain, difficulty bearing weight, and reduced function of the joint.

Grade III, or third degree, sprains are caused by complete tearing of the ligament where there is severe pain, loss of joint function, widespread swelling and bruising, and the inability to bear weight. These symptoms are similar to those of bone fractures.

Strains can range from mild muscle stiffness to great soreness. Strains result from overuse of muscles, improper use of the muscles, or as the result of injury in another part of the body when the body compensates for pain by altering the way it moves.

Grade I sprains and mild strains are usually self-diagnosed. Grade II and III sprains are often seen by a physician, who x rays the area to differentiate between a sprain and a fracture.


Grade I sprains and mild strains can be treated at home. Basic first aid for sprains consists of RICE: Rest, Ice for 48 hours, Compression (wrapping in an elastic bandage), and Elevation of the sprain above the level of the heart. Over-the-counter pain medication such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin) can be taken for pain.

In addition to RICE, people with grade II and grade III sprains in the ankle or knee usually need to use crutches until the sprains have healed enough to bear weight. Sometimes, physical therapy or home exercises are needed to restore the strength and flexibility of the joint.

Grade III sprains are usually immobilized in a cast for several weeks to see if the sprain heals. Pain medication is prescribed. Surgery may be necessary to relieve pain and restore function. Athletic people under age 40 are the most likely candidates for surgery, especially with grade III knee sprains. For complete healing, physical therapy usually will follow surgery.

Alternative treatment

Alternative practitioners endorse RICE and conventional treatments. In addition, nutritional therapists recommend vitamin C and bioflavonoids to supplement a diet high in whole grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Anti-inflammatories, such as bromelain (a proteolytic enzyme from pineapples) and tumeric (Curcuma longa), may also be helpful.

The homeopathic remedy arnica (Arnica montana) may be used initially for a few days, followed by ruta (Ruta graveolens) for joint-related injuries or Rhus toxicodendron for muscle-related injuries. If surgery is needed, alternative practitioners can recommend pre- and post-surgical therapies that will enhance healing.


Moderate sprains heal within two to four weeks, but it can take months to recover from severe ligament tears. Until recently, tearing the ligaments of the knee meant the end to an athlete's career. Improved surgical and rehabilitative techniques now offer the possibility of complete recovery. However, once a joint has been sprained, it will never be as strong as it was before.


Sprains and strains can be prevented by warming-up before exercising, using proper lifting techniques, wearing properly fitting shoes, and taping or bracing the joint.

Sports Injuries Explained


There are several specific types of injuries that are particularly associated with sports and it is especially vital to understand the various injuries so that the appropriate treatment can be sought as soon as possible.

Quick treatment for most injuries can really reduce the amount of time it takes to heal as well as the expense associated with treatment, which makes it especially important to determine an injury quickly and begin the recovery process.

Acute – This type of injury is usually associated with suddenly occurring, and often being associated with bruises, fractures, broken bones, blood, ligament strain or breakage and even spinal cord injuries. The exact type of injury is not as important as the classification. Acute injuries require immediate medical treatment to help reduce the pain, as well as begin the treatment process.

Some acute injuries such as those associated with sprains and strains need to be bandaged and splinted to prevent further damage to the body and aid in healing. In addition, eye injuries must be carefully treated once the eyes are carefully cleaned to avoid any further damage. Typically, acute injuries are the result of being hit with a ball, hit by another player, or even falling while playing. Additional ways acute injuries occur are possible, and not all injuries are the result of another player on the field.

Overuse Injuries – These injuries typically occur due to extended repetition while engaged in an activity. This can occur in adults or children and while it is possible to minimize this injury through exercise and conditioning, it generally cannot be entirely avoided. Athletes who play sports a lot do tend to experience some form of overuse injury at some point.

Some examples of overuse injuries include swimmers shoulder, little league elbow, shin splits and spondylolysis. Each type of injury is typically associated with continuous repetition but most especially in younger children. Plenty of exercises and strength training will usually help to tone and condition the muscles to avoid the problems and injuries associated with the repetition of sports.

To help really avoid overuse injuries it is advisable to always warm up carefully before playing, always ensure you are using appropriate equipment that fits properly and also try to limit the number of sports you play at once. For example, try to avoid being involved in more than one activity per season as this can help strain the muscles and joints much faster.

Reinjury – This is the final type of injury that is common amongst athletes. This most often occurs when an athlete pushes recovery to return to playing sports again before they are fully healed. Most athletes who have reinjury problems tend to return to sports before getting the approval of their doctor; however, it is possible on rare occasions that the doctor will make a mistake.

Returning to the sport before the injury has fully healed can cause the same injury to progress, and can also cause additional injuries depending on the circumstances surrounding the reinjury.

The best way to avoid a reinjury is to carefully allow your body to fully heal upon becoming injured. By following the instructions that the doctor recommends, as well as carefully and slowly re-entering the sports field after recovering from an injury you can greatly reduce the risk of a reinjury rather than making yourself susceptible to another injury so quickly.

Muscle Tremors

Tremor is an unintentional (involuntary), rhythmical alternating movement that may affect the muscles of any part of the body. Tremor is caused by the rapid alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles and is a common symptom of diseases of the nervous system (neurologic disease).

Occasional tremor is felt by almost everyone, usually as a result of fear or excitement. However, uncontrollable tremor or shaking is a common symptom of disorders that destroy nerve tissue, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Tremor may also occur after stroke or head injury. Other tremors appear without any underlying illness.

Causes and symptoms

Tremor may be a symptom of an underlying disease, and it may be caused by drugs. It may also exist as the only symptom (essential tremor).

Some types of tremor are signs of an underlying condition. About a million and a half Americans have Parkinson's disease, a disease that destroys nerve cells. Severe shaking is the most apparent symptom of Parkinson's disease. This coarse tremor features four to five muscle movements per second. The shaking is evident at rest but declines or disappears during movement.

Other disorders that cause tremor are multiple sclerosis, Wilson's disease, mercury poisoning, thyrotoxicosis, and liver encephalopathy.

A tremor that gets worse during body movement is called an "intention tremor." This type of tremor is a sign that something is amiss in the cerebellum, a region of the brain concerned chiefly with movement, balance and coordination.

Essential tremor

Many people have what is called "essential tremor," in which the tremor is the only symptom. This type of shaking affects between three and four million Americans.

The cause of essential tremor is not known, although it is an inherited problem in more than half of all cases. The genetic condition has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, which means that any child of an affected parent will have a 50% chance of developing the condition.

Essential tremor most often appears when the hands are being used, whereas a person with Parkinson's disease will most often have a tremor while walking or while the hands are resting.

People with essential tremor will usually have shaking head and hands, but the tremor may involve other parts of the body. The shaking often begins in the dominant hand and may spread to the other hand, interfering with eating and writing. Some people also develop a quavering voice.

Essential tremor affects men and women equally. The shaking often appears at about age 45, although the disorder may actually begin in adolescence or early adulthood. Essential tremor that begins very late in life is sometimes called "senile tremor."

Drugs and tremor

Several different classes of drugs can cause tremor as a side effect. These drugs include amphetamines, antidepressant drugs, antipsychotic drugs, caffeine, and lithium. Tremor also may be a sign of withdrawal from alcohol or street drugs.


Close attention to where and how the tremor appears can help provide a correct diagnosis of the cause of the shaking. The source of the tremor can be diagnosed when the underlying condition is found. Diagnostic techniques that make images of the brain, such as computed tomography scan (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may help form a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or other tremor caused by disorders of the central nervous system. Blood tests can rule out such metabolic causes as thyroid disease. A family history can help determine whether the tremor is inherited.


Neither tremor nor most of its underlying causes can be cured. Most people with essential tremor respond to drug treatment, which may include propranolol, primidone, or a benzodiazepine. People with Parkinson's disease may respond to levodopa or other antiparkinson drugs.

Research has shown that about 70% of patients treated with botulinum toxin A (Botox) have some improvement in tremor of the head, hand, and voice. Botulinum is derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This bacterium causes botulism, a form of food poisoning. It is poisonous because it weakens muscles.

A very weak solution of the toxin is used in cases of tremor and paralysis to force the muscles to relax. However, some patients experience unpleasant side effects with this drug and cannot tolerate effective doses. For other patients, the drug becomes less effective over time. About half of patients don't get any relief of tremor from medications.

Tremor control therapy

Tremor control therapy is a type of treatment using mild electrical pulses to stimulate the brain. These pulses block the brain signals that trigger tremor. In this technique, the surgeon implants an electrode into a large oval area of gray matter within the brain that acts as a relay center for nerve impulses and is involved in generating movement (thalamus).

The electrode is attached to an insulated wire that runs through the brain and exits the skull where it is attached to an extension wire. The extension is connected to a generator similar to a heart pacemaker.

The generator is implanted under the skin in the chest, and the extension is tunneled under the skin from the skull to the generator. The patient can control his or her tremor by turning the generator on with a hand-held magnet to deliver an electronic pulse to the brain.

Some patients experience complete relief with this technique, but for others it is of no benefit at all. About 5% of patients experience complications from the surgical procedure, including bleeding in the brain. The procedure causes some discomfort, because patients must be awake while the implant is placed. Batteries must be replaced by surgical procedure every three to five years.

Other surgical treatments

A patient with extremely disabling tremor may find relief with a surgical technique called thalamotomy, in which the surgeon destroys part of the thalamus. However, the procedure is complicated by numbness, balance problems, or speech problems in a significant number of cases.

Pallidotomy is another type of surgical procedure sometimes used to decrease tremors from Parkinson's disease. In this technique, the surgeon destroys part of a small structure within the brain called the globus pallidus internus. The globus is part of the basal ganglia, another part of the brain that helps control movement. This surgical technique also carries the risk of disabling permanent side effects.

Fetal tissue transplantation (also called a nigral implant) is a controversial experimental method to treat Parkinson's disease symptoms. This method implants fetal brain tissue into the patient's brain to replace malfunctioning nerves. Unresolved issues include how to harvest the fetal tissue and the moral implications behind using such tissue, the danger of tissue rejection, and how much tissue may be required. Although initial studies using this technique looked promising, there has been difficulty in consistently reproducing positive results.

Small amounts of alcohol may temporarily (sometimes dramatically) ease the shaking. Some experts recommend a small amount of alcohol (especially before dinner). The possible benefits, of course, must be weighed against the risks of alcohol abuse.


Essential tremor and the tremor caused by neurologic disease (including Parkinson's disease) slowly get worse and can interfere with a person's daily life. While the condition is not life-threatening, it can severely disrupt a person's everyday experiences.


Essential tremor and tremor caused by a disease of the central nervous system cannot be prevented. Avoiding use of stimulant drugs such as caffeine and amphetamines can prevent tremor that occurs as a side effect of drug use.


What is Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease that breaks down tissues in the nervous system (a neurodegenerative disease) of unknown cause that affects the nerves responsible for movement. It is also known as motor neuron disease and Lou Gehrig's disease, after the baseball player whose career it ended.

ALS is a disease of the motor neurons, those nerve cells reaching from the brain to the spinal cord (upper motor neurons) and the spinal cord to the peripheral nerves (lower motor neurons) that control muscle movement.

In ALS, for unknown reasons, these neurons die, leading to a progressive loss of the ability to move virtually any of the muscles in the body. ALS affects "voluntary" muscles, those controlled by conscious thought, such as the arm, leg, and trunk muscles.

ALS, in and of itself, does not affect sensation, thought processes, the heart muscle, or the "smooth" muscle of the digestive system, bladder, and other internal organs.

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What is Botulism?
Botulism is caused by botulinum toxin, a natural poison produced by certain bacteria in the Clostridium genus. Exposure to the botulinum toxin occurs mostly from eating contaminated food, or in infants, from certain clostridia growing in the intestine.

Botulinum toxin blocks motor nerves' ability to release acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that relays nerve signals to muscles, and flaccid paralysis occurs. As botulism progresses, the muscles that control the airway and breathing fail.

Botulism occurs rarely, but it causes concern because of its high fatality rate. Clinical descriptions of botulism possibly reach as far back in history as ancient Rome and Greece. However, the relationship between contaminated food and botulism wasn't defined until the late 1700s.

In 1793 the German physician, Justinius Kerner, deduced that a substance in spoiled sausages, which he called wurstgift (German for sausage poison), caused botulism. The toxin's origin and identity remained elusive until Emile von Ermengem, a Belgian professor, isolated Clostridium botulinum in 1895 and identified it as the poison source.
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Pains during Growth in Children
Growing pain is part and parcel of the growing phase in a child’s life. When the child stops growing so will the growing pain and when adolescence is reached, they disappear completely. Growing pain can occur between three to five years or eight to twelve years of age.

Growing pains are usually experienced in the legs usually in the calves, in the area in front of thighs and behind the knees. The pain starts either in the afternoon or night, just before bedtime.

The child can go to bed pain free, but can wake up in the middle of the night complaining of throbbing pain in the legs. But the good part is that these pains vanish by morning. About twenty five to forty percent of the children are known to experience growing pain.
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What is Muscular Dystrophy?
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of inherited muscle diseases in which muscle fibers are unusually susceptible to damage. Muscles, primarily voluntary muscles, become progressively weaker. In the late stages of muscular dystrophy, fat and connective tissue often replace muscle fibers.

Some types of muscular dystrophy affect heart muscles, other involuntary muscles and other organs. The most common types of muscular dystrophy appear to be due to a genetic deficiency of the muscle protein dystrophin. Nine types of muscular dystrophies are generally recognized.

All of the muscular dystrophies are marked by muscle weakness as the major symptom. The distribution of symptoms, age of onset, and progression differ significantly. Pain is sometimes a symptom of each, usually due to the effects of weakness on joint position.

Several of the muscular dystrophies, including DMD, BMD, CMD, and most forms of LGMD, are due to defects in the genes for a complex of muscle proteins. This complex spans the muscle cell membrane to unite a fibrous network on the interior of the cell with a fibrous network on the outside.

Diagnosis of muscular dystrophy involves a careful medical history and a thorough physical exam to determine the distribution of symptoms and to rule out other causes. Family history may give important clues, since all the muscular dystrophies are genetic conditions (though no family history will be evident in the event of new mutations).
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What is Myasthenia gravis?
Being told that you have myasthenia gravis may sound scary. The term means "grave muscle weakness." However, the good news is that the disease is most often not grave. Today's treatments can help control it in most people.

The disease causes muscle weakness that can be mild, moderate or strong. It occurs in muscles that you control voluntarily. Often, your muscle weakness gets worse when you are active and improves when you rest.

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease. Your immune system normally protects your body. In this case, it attacks your body by mistake. It causes a problem with how your nerves send messages to your muscles.

People with the disease have an abnormal thymus gland. Some scientists think this may cause the disease. However, no one has yet figured out how this gland and the disease are related.
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What are Myopathies ?
Myopathies are diseases of skeletal muscle which are not caused by nerve disorders. These diseases cause the skeletal or voluntary muscles to become weak or wasted.

There are many different types of myopathies, some of which are inherited, some inflammatory, and some caused by endocrine problems. Myopathies are rare and not usually fatal.

Typically, effects are mild, largely causing muscle weakness and movement problems, and many are transitory. Only rarely will patients become dependent on a wheelchair.

However, muscular dystrophy (which is technically a form of myopathy) is far more severe. Some types of this disease are fatal in early adulthood.
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What is Paralysis?
The chain of nerve cells that runs from the brain through the spinal cord out to the muscle is called the motor pathway. Normal muscle function requires intact connections all along this motor pathway.

Damage at any point reduces the brain's ability to control the muscle's movements. This reduced efficiency causes weakness, also called paresis. Complete loss of communication prevents any willed movement at all.

This lack of control is called paralysis. Certain inherited abnormalities in muscle cause periodic paralysis, in which the weakness comes and goes.
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Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Ekbom’s syndrome is a misunderstood common condition which causes the legs and sometimes the arms to twitch just before going to sleep; this can cause problems with insomnia

Around one in twenty people suffer from restless legs syndrome (RLS) during their life, it tends to affect women more than men especially pregnant women and middle aged women, other groups that tend to suffer from restless legs syndrome (RLS) are those suffering from kidney disease, nerve diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and varicose veins
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What is Temporomandibular joint disorder?
Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ) is the name given to a group of symptoms that cause pain in the head, face, and jaw.

The symptoms include headaches, soreness in the chewing muscles, and clicking or stiffness of the joints. They often have psychological as well as physical causes.

TMJ disorder, which is also sometimes called TMJ syndrome, results from pressure on the facial nerves due to muscle tension or abnormalities of the bones in the area of the hinge joint between the lower jaw and the temporal bone.

This hinge joint is called the temporomandibular joint. There are two temporomandibular joints, one on each side of the skull just in front of the ear. The name of the joint comes from the two bones that make it up. The temporal bone is the name of the section of the skull bones where the jaw bone (the mandible) is connected.
(To read the rest of this article click on the Title above here.)

What is Tennis elbow?
Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, is a common elbow injury of racket sport players and manual laborers. Tennis elbow is an overuse injury resulting from the performance of repetitive motions with the hand and forearm, such as swinging a tennis racket or a hammer.

Such repetitive motions can cause inflammation of the muscles of the forearm. The symptoms of tennis elbow include pain, soreness, and weakness in the muscles on the outside of the forearm. The treatment of tennis elbow is usually conservative, relying on rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication.

Tennis elbow is an inflammation of several structures of the elbow. These include muscles, tendons, bursa, periosteum, and epicondyle (bony projections on the outside and inside of the elbow, where muscles of the forearm attach to the bone of the upper arm).
(To read the rest of this article click on the Title above here.)

Writer's Cramp May Be Tied to Brain Abnormalities
New research suggests just that, with French scientists saying they've identified structural abnormalities in the brains of people prone to the painful condition. The abnormalities consist of less brain tissue in areas that govern motor skills, movement and sensory functioning.

"It's always nice to know as much as you can about something before you devise a treatment," said Dr. Tom Swift, past president of the American Academy of Neurology and professor emeritus and former chairman of the department of neurology at the Medical College of Georgia. "With a lot of dystonias, for a long time it was thought there weren't any anatomical abnormalities, even for severe dystonias. Using newer [imaging] techniques with higher resolutions, there are some areas that show abnormalities, but they're very subtle."
(To read the rest of this article click on the Title above here.)


Whether you are an exercise fanatic or enjoy an occasional aerobics class or two, toning may be just what you need to get that shapely look you've been trying to achieve. If you are the type who prefers the muscle strengthening that comes from lifting fork to mouth, you may find that toning exercise is the jump-start you need to get fit.

What is toning?

Toning, which includes a variety of different types of exercises, is a catchall term meaning "muscle conditioning." Results include defined muscles that are firm to the touch. If you are interested in toning your muscles, improving your muscular endurance or strength will help. To tone muscles, you can do a variety of resistance-type exercises to achieve your goals.

If you want to condition your muscles to improve muscle tone, you can use machines, free weights, or calisthenics at either a health club or at home. If you choose to participate in group exercise, you can enjoy the advantage of an instructor who can work with you to make sure you use the correct form, alignment and technique.

Toning can really be the start of an exercise regimen or the finishing touch on a routine that is tried and true. Exercise is a part of any healthy lifestyle and almost anyone can consider a toning regimen. But even if you aren't a fitness fanatic, you may want to start your new routine with some muscle toning exercises.

If you are in good shape and exercise several times a week, toning can help you achieve a chiseled muscle appearance. If you aren't in tip-top shape, toning exercise can start to tackle your spare tire or love handles. For the best combination, you can start by walking a couple of times a week along with easy weight resistance exercises (usually 10 to 15 repetitions per set).

Who's left? Well, if you occasionally exercise but couldn't call it a "routine," consider toning to build up strength. Your routine can include regular daily walks, stretching, floor work and some low weight resistance exercises. You want to get those muscles moving and repetitive motion exercises can put you on the right track.

If you haven't found time for exercise or are overweight, check with your doctor before starting. Start slowly and build up your strength and endurance. Start by walking as regularly as you are able and add additional physical activity when you feel ready. Resistance training can and should be part of everyone's regimen. You don't have to be a weight trainer to know that we all rely on our muscles to accomplish our daily activities.

What you may not know is that while muscular strength and endurance are important components of fitness, humans begin to lose muscle mass fairly rapidly as they age if they don't do regular muscle conditioning work. If you take care of your muscles today, you will not only look and feel better but you may be able to live independently for a longer period of time.

Besides, whether you are an athlete or a couch potato, remember that muscle mass also boosts metabolism.

Combating Muscle Fatigue

Athletes from amateur to professional level all experience muscle fatigue at some point. The people who tend to suffer the most however are surprisingly those who are less active. Many regard professional athletes as much more likely to have complications with muscle fatigue, however in terms of how the muscles use energy those who are less active than professionals are at a distinct disadvantage.

It is very important to understand that when you are working out, you are slowly wearing down the muscles and burning all of the energy that is provided to the muscles as well. Because of the energy that the muscles burn not being able to be replaced into the muscle quite as quickly as it is burned this causes muscle fatigue to become a problem. Sports medicine professionals are all well knowledgeable in exactly how to help professional athletes reduce the problems they experience from muscle fatigue.

In order to really combat the problems of muscle fatigue and keep it from happening, it is important to train the body to supply energy faster. Muscles receive energy in two different forms. The first is from oxygen, which creates aerobic metabolism; this is simply the process of creating adenosine triphosphate from oxygen. The other method is anaerobic metabolism, which is generated from stores of energy that are stored in the muscles themselves.

The problem that occurs most often in muscle fatigue is that anaerobic metabolism does not store huge amounts of energy and aerobic metabolism is a slower method to deliver energy to the muscles. This creates a problem for many people and results in them suddenly experiencing muscle fatigue. Professional athletes and those who are highly active are trained to help their bodies deliver energy from oxygen, which is the aerobic metabolism.

By training the body to efficiently and effectively deliver larger amounts of oxygen to the body it is possible to increase quickly the amount of energy that the muscles have available to use. This reduces the risk of muscle fatigue and allows a workout to continue for much longer. However, it takes several weeks or even months to train the body to effectively speed the flow of oxygen enough to keep from experiencing muscle fatigue based solely from a supply of aerobic metabolism.

In addition to learning ways to improve the flow of energy, it is also important for athletes to learn ways to reduce the use of muscles as much as possible to conserve energy. It is vital that energy management be controlled for athletes because without the control management many athletes would find themselves unable to workout or even complete their workout. This is never an advisable situation for any athlete; however, it can occur quite often.

In order to combat the symptoms and maximize the benefits of muscle energy it is important to work with your sports medicine physician as well as your trainer to ensure you are training your body to be as effective as possible. If you are careful and work closely with your trainer, coach and sports medicine doctor you can gather the best ways to encourage your body to conserve energy, while still increasing the flow of aerobic metabolism to your muscles.

Working towards an appropriate training method will help ensure that your muscles are as strong as possible and greatly reduce the risk of having a problem with muscle fatigue. There is plenty of professional help who can assist you in creating the best training plan possible to strengthen the muscles. Providing the maximum amount of energy to your muscles possible is the best thing you can do in order to ensure you stay as healthy as possible, with as little risk of injury as possible.

It is very important that you always discuss any concerns that you have with your doctor or coach. They can assist you in assuring that you take the proper precautions to ensure your body is carefully trained. If you have any doubts about your overall health, it is essential to talk to your doctor immediately.

Stretching – Ways to Avoid Injury and Keep in Shape

Most sports medicine professionals can all readily agree that those athletes who take the time to really care for their bodies experience far fewer injuries than those who act reckless with regard to their health. It is really important to remember exactly what a benefit stretching provides when you are trying to decide if spending time stretching is worth it. The exact benefits are almost limitless, however there are some specific benefits that virtually all athletes should experience.

Amongst the benefits of stretching there are the improvements to your circulations, range of motions, posture, overall performance and even your ability to relax after working out. However this is not all that stretching provides, it also helps you decrease the tension in muscles and can even assist in reducing overall joint stiffness that can occur after a work out. The overall benefit of stretching is possible to achieve in as little as 10 minutes before starting an actual workout, which makes it very easy to work into any routine that you are exploring.

By properly ensuring that you are stretching, you are not only providing the benefits to your body, but you are also able to reduce the number of times you are forced to go to the doctor over an injury. Most athletes would rather be playing their favorite sport rather than sitting in a doctor’s office being treated. However, while most athletes would prefer not to spend time being treated, it is still important to seek treatment for all injuries that occur rather than leaving them unattended.

With proper attention paid to stretching in addition to an appropriate exercise routine it is possible to greatly reduce the number of injuries that occur. While not all injuries can be avoided by stretching, it can help to reduce the severity of many injuries as well as reducing the overall number of injuries. It is highly important to work with a coach or other sports medicine professional to develop a routing for stretching that is most effective for your individual lifestyle as well as body type.

Especially important for athletes is discussing their workout habits and any previous injuries when selecting a stretching routine. By carefully choosing the proper exercises and stretches it is possible to help protect against further injury, and really tailor the workout to your exact individual needs.

However, just merely stretching to stretch can sometimes void the benefits if the stretches are not the proper type. For example, if you are a runner and focus more emphasis on stretching your arms you are going to see fewer benefits than someone who stretches their back as well as legs before actually running.

Deciding with your sports medicine team the appropriate exercises, number of repetitions and all other pertinent details of your stretching program also helps to ensure that your entire team knows exactly what you are doing, and can make modifications and adjustments based upon what you need as an individual, as well as what you need to improve your overall athletic ability.

It is very important to carefully select exercises that are appropriate for your needs at the time of the warm up as well. This means specifically, if you have an injury to your hamstring muscle, you should give it some rest for a couple of days at a minimum.

This brings to light the importance of talking to your doctor and learning to listen to your body. If you feel as if the stretches you are doing cause you more harm than they help, it is time to rework your routine and change how you are treating your body. Remember, changing the types of stretches that you do is perfectly acceptable especially when you are healing from an injury.

Working to keep your body in the best overall condition possible is your ultimate goal and working towards that goal often means having to make adjustments to a routine, often at the last minute.

What are the Best abdominal exercises?
If you dream of tightening your tummy but dread doing endless sets of sit-ups, then California researchers have good news for you. The classic sit-up, they say, is not the best answer for stronger, flatter abdominals.

A study led by Peter Francis, Ph.D., at the biomechanics lab at San Diego State University put different abdominal exercises to the test and found that not all are created equal. The traditional sit-up - or crunch - fell close to the bottom in a ranking of the ab exercises.

"The sit-up is ineffective," Francis says. Typically, he says, people do sit-ups by lying with their back on the floor, with their legs straight or knees bent. Then, they sit all the way up, relying on their hips and less on their abdominals. Not only is a sit-up ineffective but it can strain the back, Francis adds.

Perhaps another surprise finding was that despite the advertising hype, some abdominal exercise equipment tested, including the Torso Track and Ab Roller, either were no more effective or only marginally more effective than a regular crunch you can do at no cost.
(To read the rest of this article click on the Title above here.)

When to seek Medical Advice:


Diagnosis of movement disorders requires a careful medical history and a thorough physical and neurological examination. Brain imaging studies are usually performed. Imaging techniques include computed tomography scan (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.

Routine blood and urine analyses are performed. A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) may be necessary. Video recording of the abnormal movement is often used to analyze movement patterns and to track progress of the disorder and its treatment. Genetic testing is available for some forms of movement disorders.

Muscle Electromyography (EMG) is an electrical recording of muscle activity that aids in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease.

Muscles are stimulated by signals from nerve cells called motor neurons. This stimulation causes electrical activity in the muscle, which in turn causes contraction. This electrical activity is detected by a needle electrode inserted into the muscle and connected to a recording device.

Together, the electrode and recorder are called an electromyography machine. EMG can determine whether a particular muscle is responding appropriately to stimulation, and whether a muscle remains inactive when not stimulated.

EMG is performed most often to help diagnose different diseases causing weakness. Although EMG is a test of the motor system, it may help identify abnormalities of nerves or spinal nerve roots that may be associated with pain or numbness.

Other symptoms for which EMG may be useful include numbness, atrophy, stiffness, fasciculation, cramp, deformity, and spasticity. EMG results can help determine whether symptoms are due to a muscle disease or a neurological disorder, and, when combined with clinical findings, usually allow a confident diagnosis.

EMG can help diagnose many muscle and nerve disorders, including:

• muscular dystrophy
• congenital myopathies
• mitochondrial myopathies
• metabolic myopathies
• myotonias
• peripheral neuropathies
• radiculopathies
• nerve lesions
• amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
• polio
• spinal muscular atrophy
• Guillain-Barré syndrome
• ataxias
• myasthenias


No special precautions are needed for this test. Patients with a history of bleeding disorder should consult with their treating physician before the test. If a muscle biopsy is planned as part of the diagnostic work-up, EMG should not be performed at the same site, as it may effect the microscopic appearance of the muscle.


During an EMG test, a fine needle is inserted into the muscle to be tested. This may cause some discomfort, similar to that of an injection. Recordings are made while the muscle is at rest, and then during the contraction.

The person performing the test may move the limb being tested, and direct the patient to move it with various levels of force. The needle may be repositioned in the same muscle for further recording. Other muscles may be tested as well. A typical session lasts from 30-60 minutes.

A slightly different test, the nerve conduction velocity test, is often performed at the same time with the same equipment. In this test, stimulating and recording electrodes are used, and small electrical shocks are applied to measure the ability of the nerve to conduct electrical signals.

This test may cause mild tingling and discomfort similar to a mild shock from static electricity. Evoked potentials may also be performed for additional diagnostic information. Nerve conduction velocity and evoked potential testing are especially helpful when pain or sensory complaints are more prominent than weakness.


No special preparation is needed. The doctor supervising and interpreting the test should be given information about the symptoms, medical conditions, suspected diagnosis, neuroimaging studies, and other test results.


Minor pain and bleeding may continue for several hours after the test. The muscle may be tender for a day or two.


There are no significant risks to this test, other than those associated with any needle insertion (pain, bleeding, bruising, or infection).

Normal results

There should be some brief EMG activity during needle insertion. This activity may be increased in diseases of the nerve and decreased in long-standing muscle disorders where muscle tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue or fat. Muscle tissue normally shows no EMG activity when at rest or when moved passively by the examiner.

When the patient actively contracts the muscle, spikes (motor unit action potentials) should appear on the recording screen, reflecting the electrical activity within. As the muscle is contracted more forcefully, more groups of muscle fibers are recruited or activated, causing more EMG activity.

Abnormal results

The interpretation of EMG results is not a simple matter, requiring analysis of the onset, duration, amplitude, and other characteristics of the spike patterns.

Electrical activity at rest is abnormal; the particular pattern of firing may indicate denervation (for example, a nerve lesion, radiculopathy, or lower motor neuron degeneration), myotonia, or inflammatory myopathy.

Decreases in the amplitude and duration of spikes are associated with muscle diseases, which also show faster recruitment of other muscle fibers to compensate for weakness. Recruitment is reduced in nerve disorders.


Treatment of a movement disorder begins with determining its cause. Physical and occupational therapy may help make up for lost control and strength. Drug therapy can help compensate for some imbalances of the basal ganglionic circuit. For instance, levodopa (L-dopa) or related compounds can substitute for lost dopamine-producing cells in Parkinson's disease.

Conversely, blocking normal dopamine action is a possible treatment in some hyperkinetic disorders, including tics. Oral medications can also help reduce overall muscle tone. Local injections of botulinum toxin can selectively weaken overactive muscles in dystonia and spasticity. Destruction of peripheral nerves through injection of phenol can reduce spasticity. All of these treatments may have some side effects.

Surgical destruction or inactivation of basal ganglionic circuits has proven effective for Parkinson's disease and is being tested for other movement disorders. Transplantation of fetal cells into the basal ganglia has produced mixed results in Parkinson's disease.

Alternative treatment

There are several alternative therapies that can be useful when treating movement disorders. The progress made will depend on the individual and his/her condition. Among the therapies that may be helpful are acupuncture, homeopathy, touch therapies, postural alignment therapies, and biofeedback.

Self Care strategies for Living with Muscle disorders

Sprains and Strained Muscles

Sprained or strained muscles may occur from overuse or exercise. Often, dehydration contributes to the sprain. Sometimes a long soak in a tub of hot water will do wonders to help replenish overused muscles.

For regular sprains, apply cold packs for the first twenty-four hours after the injury. Also, keeping the injury elevated helps improve circulation and lessen the swelling. Some herbal remedies are also helpful for minor sprains and strains.

Turmeric – Turmeric has been found to have strong anti-inflammatory properties and is helpful in treating many sports injuries, including sprains. It can be used topically but is most often taken internally. Take up to 1800 milligrams per day. Do not take more, because in larger quantities it can hurt the stomach.

Kava-Kava – This herb is used to help relieve pain and as a muscle relaxant. Taken internally, you can take up to eight 500-milligram capsules per day. Do not combine kava-kava with alcohol or sedatives.

Peppermint- The cooling sensation of the peppermint helps take away from the sensation of pain, helping to feel better. Use topically for a sprain. It is available as an ingredient in many commercial creams found at the health food store. You can also use peppermint oil added to massage oil to massage into the skin.

Comfrey – Comfrey helps relieve pain, reduce swelling and inflammation. It is found in many over the counter salves and creams. It is effective without the side effects of many prescription medications. Apply as directed on the label.

#Apply mustard oil on the sprain and sprinkle turmeric powder on it. Then bandage the area with a small towel. Then put some salt and tie it tightly in another cloth to make a bundle of it. Warm this on a pan. Apply this on the bandage. The sprain will clear out in a short time.

#Simply applying warm mustard oil on the affected area and then having a warm water bath also helps in the treatment of the sprains.

The following methods work if you get a sudden sprain. Try them out before applying any medication.

#Straighten the muscle and flex it upwards. If you have a sprain in the calf muscle, then sit down on a chair and pull your leg as much away from your body as you can. Then try to pull out the toes as much upwards as you can. This can relieve minor sprains.

#Dip a towel in ice-cold water and tie it around the sprained muscle. The cold temperature will make the muscle numb and make the sprain go away.

#Application of a hot pad also helps in removing sprains. If the sprain is on the back, then take a shower bath with hot water.

Diet change strategies:

Sprains are caused due to vitiation of the vata dosha. Dehydration can vitiate the dosha further. Hence you must make it a point to stay properly hydrated when you have a sprain. Drink a few glasses of water when the sprain comes on, preferably with a dash of lemon juice in it.

Orange juice is also good to maintain the water content of the body. Always have some mineral-rich foods before going to bed in order to protect yourself from sprains. Bananas are ideal.

Do not have any strong beverages especially after dark. Tea, coffee must be avoided, and so also chocolates. Instead, have a cup of warm milk before going to bed.

Using Ayurveda Therapy:

Ayurveda generally prescribes oil massage therapies for the treatment of sprains. Mahanarayana taila and Praharini taila are two good oils which can be used. These oils can be warmed a little before application to provide better effects.

Medicines that Ayurveda prescribes for people with sprains are Pratapa Lankeshwara rasa and Laxmivilasa rasa. Sinhanaada guggulu is also occasionally prescribed.

Vitamin & Nutrient Associations

Useful Herbs in the Treatment of Sprains

#Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Clove oil is effective in the treatment of sprains and muscular cramps. It is made into a poultice and applied on the affected parts.

#Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Ginger is a very effective painkiller. A paste is made by rubbing dry ginger in water. This is applied locally on the sprained part.

#Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

The hyssop herb is very good remedy for several muscular problems, including sprains. For the treatment of sprains, a paste of the entire herb is made and is applies externally to the affected area. Alternatively, the paste can be steeped in boiling water and this can be used as fomentation for the affected muscle. Hyssop provides immediate benefits in sprains. It is also very effective in the treatment of black eyes, wounds, bruises, burns and strains.

#Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Licorice is used in the treatment of muscular aches and sprains. Its roots are soaked in water overnight and this infusion is applied on the affected parts.

#Marjoram (Origanum majorana)

Oil of the marjoram herb is extracted and is applied locally on the affected regions in case of sprains, bruises and even paralysis. In case of stiffness, a simple application of the marjoram oil, slightly warmed, helps to loosen the muscles.

#Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

Turmeric is made into a paste and is mixed with lime and salt. This is applied on the sprained muscles with very good results.

Even when we try to eat well, we're disadvantaged. The nutritional content of most food has been compromised over the years, not only by deficient soils and modern production, transportation, storage and processing methods, but also by the enormous amounts of chemical and artificial substances added to promote growth, storage life, taste and appearance.

It's for this reason that more and more medical authorities are advocating the use of vitamin and mineral supplements. However, finding them in the right combination can be both confusing and costly.

The nutrition products I am going to recommend you make use of knowledge gained from the botanical world's 6,000 year history. They incorporated health building nutritional herbs with the best modern technology to help our bodies cleanse and detoxify so that the cells - the tiniest living units - can be as fully nourished as possible.

This allows the cells to grow, repair and to perform their functions with the best possible efficiency so that we feel and look better and are more able to prevent and fight disease. Once the body begins to clear itself of toxins it can more efficiently absorb nutrition.

Aloe Vera Juice is a refreshing and anti-bacterial drink, you might find that taking this daily, diluted in some filtered water will not only refresh you like ‘a shower inside you’ but also assists in dealing with any digestive issues you may also be experiencing.

You may find benefit from our information on detoxification as well as a bit about detoxing because of change of diet

It may be due to difficulties with your digestive system that is causing your body to be starved of key nutrients, vitamins or minerals. In this case you may find useful answers by reviewing our article on Nutrition For Your Cells. There is also more information here about why is nutrition such an issue nowadays?

It may be that your metabolism has slowed due to pressures that have been placed on your system through life in general or through specific “challenges” you have faced in the last few months or last few years. Review this by looking at our article about balancing your Metabolic Rate.

Further reading through our articles on Muscle disorders health issues will give you a body of information that will help you decide what options you have to deal with the underlying causes of your problem through giving your body the nutrition products that will assist you body to heal from the inside out.

We wish you well in your search for solutions to this Muscle disorders problem and your movement towards better health in all areas.

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Natural Remedies For Muscle Aches - Part Two 
Muscle and Leg cramps can be cause by a variety of nutritional deficiencies: magnesium, potassium, vitamin E, calcium or protein. Eat lots of greens, …

Natural Remedies For Muscle Aches - Part One 
Add ginger tea to your bathfull of warm water. Make strong ginger tea with 2 teaspoons of ginger powder or fresh, grated ginger root in 2 cups of water. …

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